A Review on Different Control Techniques used for Pitch Control of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

Manash Protim Saikia, Jyoti Kumar Barman


In wind turbine technology, the pitch control mechanism of blades is a very important factor for the efficient power output of a wind turbine. Various control techniques can be implemented for pitch control. This paper deals with the study and review of different control methodologies used by the researchers and engineers to control the pitch angle of the blades of a horizontal axis wind turbine to optimize the power in low rated wind speed. This paper involves the study of PI, PID, Fuzzy logic control, Sliding mode control and Adaptive control methodologies.


Renewable energy, variable Speed Pitch Control, PI, PID, Sliding mode, Fuzzy logic control, Adaptive control

Full Text:



J. G. Slootweg, Wind Power: Modeling and Impact on Power System Dynamics, Ph.D. Thesis, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, 2003. Retrieved from http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:f1ce3eaa-f57d-4d37-b739-b109599a7d21

N. W. Miller, J. J. Sanchez-Gasca, W. W. Price and R. W. Delmerico, “Dynamic modeling of GE 1.5 and 3.6 MW wind turbine-generators for stability simulationsâ€, 2003 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting (IEEE Cat. No.03CH37491), Toronto, Ont., 2003, pp. 1977-1983, Vol. 3. Doi: 10.1109/PES.2003.1267470

G. Gail, A. D. Hansen and T. Hartkopf, “Controller design and analysis of a variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generatorâ€, Proc. of 2006 European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition, European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), 27 Feb - 2 Mar 2006, Athens, Greece.

A. D. Hansen, P. Soerensen, F. lov and F. Blaabjerg, “Overall control strategy of variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbineâ€, Proc. of 2004 Wind Power Nordic Conference, Chalmers tekniska högskola, 1-2 Mar 2004, Sweden.

A. D. Wright and L. J. Fingersh, “Advanced control design for wind turbines; Part I: control design, implementation, and initial testsâ€, Technical Report (No. NREL/TP-500-42437), National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), Golden, CO, United States, Mar 1, 2008. Retrieved from https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy08osti/42437.pdf

M. M. Hand and M. J. Balas, “Systematic Controller Design Methodology for Variable-Speed Wind Turbinesâ€, Technical Report (No. NREL/TP-500-29415), National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), Golden, CO, United States, February 2002. Retrieved from https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy02osti/29415.pdf

X. Gang, “Research on Application of Fuzzy PID in Collective Pitch Control Systemâ€, Proc. of 2011 International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems Engineering (CASE), Singapore, 2011, pp. 1-4. Doi: 10.1109/ICCASE.2011.5997553

E. A. Bossanyi, “Individual Blade Pitch Control for Load Reductionâ€, Wind Energy, 2003, Vol. 6, Issue 2, pp. 119-128.

E. Muljadi and C. P. Butterfield, “Pitch-controlled variable-speed wind turbine generationâ€, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 37, Issue 1, Jan.-Feb. 2001, pp. 240-246. Doi: 10.1109/28.903156

J. Zhang, M. Cheng, Z. Chen and X. Fu, “Pitch angle control for variable speed wind turbinesâ€, Proc. of 2008 Third International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies, Nanjing, 2008, pp. 2691-2696. Doi: 10.1109/DRPT.2008.4523867

A. V. A. Macêdo and W. S. Mota, “Wind turbine pitch angle control using Fuzzy Logicâ€, Proc. of 2012 Sixth IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution: Latin America Conference and Exposition (T&D-LA), Montevideo, 2012, pp. 1-6. Doi: 10.1109/TDC-LA.2012.6319100

B. Beltran, T. Ahmed-Ali and M. E. H. Benbouzid, “Sliding Mode Power Control of Variable-Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systemsâ€, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 23, Issue 2, June 2008, pp. 551-558. Doi: 10.1109/TEC.2007.914163

H. De Battista, R. J. Mantz and C. F. Christiansen, “Dynamical sliding mode power control of wind driven induction generatorsâ€, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 15, Issue 4, Dec. 2000, pp. 451-457. Doi: 10.1109/60.900507

K.E. Johnson and L. Fingersh, “Adaptive Pitch Control of Variable-Speed Wind Turbinesâ€, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Vol. 130, Issue 3, 2007, pp.031012-031012-7. Doi: 10.1115/1.2931505

S. A. Frost, M. J. Balas and A. D. Wright, “Modified Adaptive Control for Region 3 Operation in the Presence of Wind Turbine Structural Modesâ€, Proc. of 48th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Aerospace Sciences Meetings, 4-7 Jan. 2010, Orlando, Florida, pp. 249. Retrieved from https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20100021403.pdf

S. A. Frost, M. J. Balas and A. D. Wright, “Adaptive Control of a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Operating in Region 3â€, Proc. of 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including The New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, Aerospace Sciences Meetings, 5-8 Jan. 2009, Orlando, Florida, pp. 480. Retrieved from https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20100024105.pdf

S. A. Frost, M. J. Balas and A. D. Wright, “Direct Adaptive Control of a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine for Speed Regulation†International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control: IFACâ€Affiliated Journal, Vol. 19, Issue 1, Jan. 2009, pp. 59-71.

M. M. Hand, “Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Controller Systematic Design Methodology: A Comparison of Non-Linear and Linear Model-Based Designsâ€, Technical Report (No. NREL/TP-500-25540), National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), Golden, CO, United States, July 1999. Retrieved from https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy99osti/25540.pdf

T. Burton, N. Jenkins, D. Sharpe and E. Bossanyi, Wind Energy Handbook, 2nd Edition West Sussex: Wiley, 2011

K. D. Young, V. I. Utkin and U. Ozguner, “A control engineer's guide to sliding mode controlâ€, Proc. of 1996 IEEE International Workshop on Variable Structure Systems (VSS'96), Tokyo, Japan, 1996, pp. 1-14. Doi: 10.1109/VSS.1996.578521

C. M. Hong, C. H. Huang and F. S. Cheng, “Sliding mode control for variable-speed wind turbine generation systems using artificial neural networkâ€, Energy Procedia, Vol. 61, 2014, pp.1626-1629.

A. Musyafa, A. Harika, I. M. Y. Negara and I. Robandi, “Pitch angle control of variable low rated speed wind turbine using fuzzy logic controllerâ€, International Journal Of Engineering & Technology (IJET-IJENS), Vol. 10, Issue 05, 2010. pp.21-24.

M. A. M. Prats, J. M. Carrasco, E. Galvan, J. A. Sanchez, L. G. Franquelo and C. Batista, “Improving transition between power optimization and power limitation of variable speed, variable pitch wind turbines using fuzzy control techniquesâ€, Proc. of 2000 26th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON 2000): 2000 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Control and Instrumentation, 21st Century Technologies, Nagoya, Japan, Vol. 3, 2000, pp. 1497-1502. Doi: 10.1109/IECON.2000.972496

K. E. Johnson and L. J. Fingersh, “Adaptive pitch control of variable-speed wind turbinesâ€, Proc. of 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Aerospace Sciences Meetings (AIAA 2007), 8-11 Jan. 2007, Reno, Nevada, pp. 1023. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2007-1023

S. N. Bhadra, D. Kastha and S. Banerjee, Wind Electrical Systems, Oxford University Press, India, 2005.

A. K. Sethi and R. Vijay, Pitch Control of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine, B.Tech. Thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India, 2011. Retrieved from http://ethesis.nitrkl.ac.in/2430/1/Pitch_Control_of_Horizontal_Axis_Wind_Turbine.pdf


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Author and Journal (AJEEE)

Call for Paper for the upcoming issue

The journal welcomes publications of high-quality research papers, review papers, white papers, conference papers, etc. on theoretical developments and practical applications in the domain of Electrical and Electronics and its allied sciences.

Authors are solicited to contribute to the journal by submitting articles that illustrate original research works, short communications and review articles in the thrust areas of the journal as mentioned in the About page.

Submission and Template:

  • The downloadable Template and the Online submission link are available on the PAPER SUBMISSION page

ADBU Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (AJEEE) - ISSN: 2582-0257 is an International peer-reviewed Open-Access Online journal in English language that publishes scientific articles which contribute new novel experimentation and theoretical work in all areas of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and its applications.

* The views, interpretations and opinions expressed in the articles are those of the author(s) and should not be considered to reflect opinions of the Editorial Board of this journal- AJEEE.

Creative Commons License

© All Rights Reserved by Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, ADBU, Assam (India).